When it comes to teenage drinking, the typical venue is a party — where some teens play drinking games and binge. It may surprise you to learn that the majority of parents are aware that alcohol is flowing at these events.
On any given weekend, some teenagers receive three to four text messages about parties, says Bettina Friese, a public health researcher at the Prevention Research Center in Oakland, Calif.
Friese recently conducted a study on teen drinking. She interviewed 1,100 teenagers living in Northern California. Most did not host parties with alcohol. But of the 39 percent who did, 70 percent said their parents knew kids at the party were drinking. Twenty-four percent said their parents "probably" knew, leaving just a handful of parents in the dark.
Now some communities across the United States are trying to hold these parents accountable and fine them for allowing underage drinking in their homes.
When Friese interviewed parents about why they allowed alcohol, there were many excuses, she says — everything from concern about alienating their children to worries that imposing strict rules might encourage more dangerous rebellion.
Many parents felt drinking was inevitable, she says. One mother told Friese, "I'd rather they make their mistakes when they're at home than when they're away."
Many parents said they believed it was safer for their child (and even their child's friends) to drink at their house rather than someplace else, Friese says. The biggest concern among the parents was drunken driving; many said they had their child's friends stay the night to avoid driving. Many parents said they knew it was "wrong" to allow alcohol at teen parties. But, Friese says, they felt they had no choice.
That may be changing. Nationwide, cities and communities are starting to crack down. So far, 28 states have some sort of social host law on the books. These laws hold adults responsible for any underage drinking that happens on their property.
The details of the law vary, community to community and state to state. One of the most stringent laws is in Ventura County in California, says Bernadette Compean, an alcohol beverage control officer with the Ventura Police Department.
"The bottom line is you can't provide alcohol to minors, period," she says, adding that Ventura is the only county in California where all of the cities have similar laws.
The county's laws are crystal clear: If you're 21 or older and you host a party where alcohol is available to teenagers, you can be fined $1,000 on the spot. If parents aren't home, the teen who's hosting the party gets the ticket. And to make sure tickets don't get ignored, police promptly follow up with a letter to parents informing them about the party, the ticket and the $1,000 fine.
If police are called a second time in one year, the fine doubles to $2,000 plus the cost of city services — which can run into thousands of dollars more if the fire department or other emergency services are involved. Compean says most teens and parents get the message the first time. She hasn't been called back much for second offenses.
Since the law was passed six years ago, underage drinking has declined throughout the county, and teenagers report that it's become more difficult to obtain alcohol.
And it's not just in Ventura that such laws are changing behavior. Public health researcher M.J. Paschall, also with the Prevention Research Center, recently did a study comparing cities in California that had social host laws with cities that did not.
"We found that cities with more stringent and enforceable social host laws had lower levels of drinking at parties among teenagers compared to cities with less stringent laws, or without any kind of social host law," Paschall says.
He plans future research to see if the laws also result in fewer alcohol-related accidents and injuries — especially from drunken driving.
DAVID GREENE, HOST:
Today in Your Health - getting smartphones out of your love life. But we begin with kids and alcohol. When it comes to teenagers drinking, the typical venue is a party where it's common for teens to play drinking games and to binge. And new research suggests if communities can take steps to rein in parties they can reduce underage drinking. NPR's Patti Neighmond reports.
PATTI NEIGHMOND, BYLINE: In lots of communities across the country parties with alcohol have become something of a rite of passage for teenagers. Bettina Friese is a researcher at the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation in Oakland, California.
BETTINA FRIESE: We had teens tell us they get a text and there are typically three or four parties to choose from on any given weekend.
NEIGHMOND: Friese surveyed about 1,100 teenagers living in Northern California. Most did not host parties with alcohol, but of the 39 percent who did...
FRIESE: At least one parent was at home for either most of the time of the party or all of the time.
NEIGHMOND: Seventy percent of the teens said their parents knew alcohol was served. Twenty-four percent said their parents probably knew, leaving just a handful of parents in the dark. When Friese later interviewed parents about why they allowed alcohol she says there were many excuses.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: (Reading) These kids are going to be 18 years old. You got to let them make their own mistakes.
NEIGHMOND: This woman is reading a quote from what one mother told researchers.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: (Reading) I'd rather they make their mistakes when they're at home. I have to give her the rope until she hangs herself and in 18 years she's only hung herself twice. I think that's pretty good.
NEIGHMOND: Researcher Friese says many parents just felt drinking was inevitable. And that it was safer for their child and even their child's friends to drink at their house rather than someplace else.
FRIESE: They felt there was nothing they could do about it and, in fact, being too strict with their children about alcohol could harm their relationship with their child. And could also put their child in a situation where they might be too afraid to tell the parent that they had alcohol and then maybe drink and drive or ride with a driver who had been drinking instead of calling their parents for help.
NEIGHMOND: Again, reading a quote from an interview with another mother.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: (Reading) When we have kids here drinking it's a little bit of risk. That's why we don't do it very often. I know it's wrong.
NEIGHMOND: It's also against the law and a growing number of communities are starting to crack down.
BERNADETTE COMPEAN: The bottom line is that you can't provide alcohol to minors - period.
NEIGHMOND: Officer Bernadette Compean is alcohol enforcement officer for Ventura County in Southern California. She says the county's laws are crystal clear. If you are 21 or over - and that includes parents - and you host a party where alcohol is available to teenagers you can be fined $1,000 on the spot.
COMPEAN: The fines are so high because the concept is you sort of hit people in the checkbook, it really makes them sort of wake-up. If it was a nominal fine, you know, $25 or even $150, most people can sort of justify that and, like, oh, that's no big deal. I can pay that. But a thousand dollars, I mean, no matter how much you make a thousand dollars is still a lot of money right off the bat.
NEIGHMOND: If parents aren't home, the teenager whose house it is gets the ticket. And police promptly follow up with a letter to parents informing them about the party, the ticket and the thousand dollar fine. And if police are called a second time in one year the fine doubles to $2,000 plus the cost of city services.
COMPEAN: It's the cost of every officer who's out there. And if there's any emergency services from the fire department, those costs are included as well.
NEIGHMOND: Which can quickly add up to thousands of dollars more - Compean says most teens and parents get the message the first time. She hasn't been called back much for second offenses. And since the law was passed six years ago, underage drinking has declined throughout the county. And teenagers report it's more difficult to obtain alcohol, and it's not just Ventura. Researcher M.J. Paschall compared California cities that had these social host laws to cities that did not.
M.J. PASCHALL: Cities with more stringent and enforceable social host laws had lower levels of drinking at parties among teenagers compared to cities with less stringent laws or without any kind of social host law.
NEIGHMOND: Right now, 28 states have some form of social host laws on the books. Paschall plans future research to see if the laws also result in fewer alcohol-related accidents and injuries, especially from drunk driving. Patti Neighmond, NPR News. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.